Bodybuilding Training Article from

Weight Lifting and Weight Training - Chapter 14

Home Gym Equipment

Individual Stations

Folding Bench Press

Adjustable Combo Bench

Flat Bench

Heavy Flat Bench

Adjustable Spotter Bench

Bench Press Spotter

Basic Bench Press

Self Spotter Rack

Power Cage

Hip Sled

Dumbbell Bench

Smith Machine Bench

Jones Machine

Back & Arm Machine

Cable Crossover Machine

Squat Rack

Preacher Curl Bench

Roman Chair

Hyperextension Bench

Seated Calf Machine

Vertical Knee Raise

Hack Squat Machine

Power Rack

Power Rack Bench Combo

Power Rack Lat Attachment

Leg Extension Curl

Ab Crunch Board

Dumbbell Rack

Flat Incline Decline Bench

Utility Bench

Smith Machine

Smith Lat Attachment

Plate Loaded Gym

150 lb. Weight Stack

Selectorized Home Gym

Preacher Curl Attachment

Bench Squat Combo

Lat Machines

Phys-X Free-Standing Lat Tower

Olympic Weight Tree

Standard Weight Tree

Ab Crunch Machine


Home Gyms

Home Gyms

Performance Trainer

Biangular Gym

Two Stack Gym

4-in-1 Free Weight Gym

All-in-1 Free Weight Gym

Smith Gym


Cardio Equipment

8k Treadmill

10k Treadmill

Elliptical Trainer


Miscellaneous Items

Body Solid Miscellaneous

Bodybuilding Accessories

Gravity Inversion Boots

Ab Blaster Slings

Olympic Adapter Sleeves

Rubber Floor Protector

Olympic Shrug Bar

Push-Up Bars


Chapter Fourteen

Competition procedure

Each competitor in an Olympic championship has the privilege of three attempts for each of the scheduled lifts (but not necessarily for each weight attempted). The weight of the barbell must be in multiples of 2 1/2 kilos (or 5 lb. in countries using the English weight system). for world championships, irrespective of what country the championships are held in, the kilo system is used.

Weight Increases
The increase of weight between each attempt must not be less than 5 kilos (or 10 lb.), except for the last attempt,when it may be 2 1/2 kilos (or 5 lb.). If a competitor chooses to take just 1 2 1/2 kilos increase between his first and second attempt, then this will be counted as his last attempt.

A larger increase than the minimum of 5 kilos (or 2 kilos on last attempt) can be taken. And, in fact, does happen quite frequently.

In no case will a competitor be allowed to take a weight less than that used in this preceding attempt. If three failures are made on any weight, then the competitor scores nothing for that particular lift and is eliminated from the competition.

At the start of the competition, the barbell will be loaded to the lowest poundage required by any of the competitors, and must be kept rising in poundage as the competition proceeds each lifter coming in at the poundage he wants on an particular attempt.

In no case can a poundage once attempted by any competitor be lowered or any other competitor.

When two competitors wish to take the same starting poundage for a scheduled lift, their names must be drawn by lot.

The competitor whose name is drawn first must lift first and continue to lift first (when both want the same poundage, of course) right to the end of the attempts.

If, during the following lift, both competitors wish to take the same poundage, the one who was first for the preceding lift must now be second. If the same situation arises for the third lift, then fresh lots must be drawn.

In the case of a tie in total between two or more competitors the lighter man (as taken at the weigh-in) will take the highest placing.

If the competitors were the same bodyweight at the weigh-in, then they must be weighed again after the competition, the bodyweights thus obtained being the deciding factor. If there is again equality in bodyweight then the competitors will be declared as equal rating.

Rising weight
Dealing now with these rules in more detail, we see that the fundamental principle is that is kept constantly rising as the competitors take their attempts, with the weaker ones coming in first and perhaps even completing their three attempts before many of the stronger competitors commence.

While in certain circumstances this procedure does tend to slow down the proceedings (as for example, when only one competitor wants a particular weight and he lifts alone with permitted rests between attempts), from the spectators' point of view it provides a spectacle interest as the weaker performers fall the the stronger ones battle it out as the weight approaches maximum.

It will be seen that the competitor who lifts fast on any of the lifts has the advantage of knowing exactly what he has to do in order to equal or beat his rivals as circumstances warrant.

Particularly is this important on the Clean and Jerk, when the final phases of the contest are being decided, and often we see one competitor who has started higher on this lift and has a chance of winning the title, waiting until everyone has finished to ascertain what he needs in order to win and asking for that poundage.

Record Breaking
In the same way as Olympic champions are recognized at world, continental, national area and district levels, so are records on each of the Olympic lifts and totals.

Normally a record on an individual lift can be attempted at any time and on any occasion, unlike the winning of an Olympic title, which must be won at a properly organized contest for that particular title.

Conditions governing record totals vary, inasmuch as a world-record total must be set up at a world championship, Olympic Games, any other international meeting, or a national championships.

Dealing first with world records, we find that they are graded in the same bodyweight classes as for championships.

Records on individual lifts are recorded in multiples of 1/2 kilo, which is also the minimum stage of increase from one record to another.

A record weight is weighted to the nearest 1/2 kilo downwards - thus a barbell weighing 92 kilos 600 grams will be recorded as 92 1/2 kilos, and for any further record the minimum weight required will be 93 kilos.

Majority Verdict
For recognition for a world record, the lift must be passed by a majority of the three presiding officials, i.e. referee and two judges, who must be of International standard.

Not so long ago a unanimous verdict was essential before any record could be recognized, but this rule was changed to come into line with the procedure for championship lifting where a lifter can accumulate a total (perhaps even a record total) and yet have only a majority verdict on each of his lifts.

Most world records are, of course, put up at such major events as world championships, international contests, etc., but as I stated earlier can be made on any suitable occasion. The question of weight in as is important in this respect and differs from the procedure for championships, when competitors are weighed beforehand.

For record breaking , the lifter must be weighed immediately after breaking a record in order to ascertain his exact weight at the time of performance.

It will readily be seen that in a championship meeting, when a lifter can weigh-in an hour or more before actually lifting, he could weigh over his class-weight limit when actually performing.

This, in fact, does very often happen, particularly in the case of a lifter who has had trouble in making weight and then immediately after the weigh-in, has a good meal. Lifters have been known to put on two or three pounds from the weigh-in to the time when they take their first attempt in the championship.

In the case of a record, however, it is very important that a man should actually weigh within the limits of his class when he makes his record lift.

The barbell should also be weighed to ascertain the exact poundage, and not taken at its face value at very poundage stage.

When competing in a world or Olympic championship, a lifter will normally be allowed only one attempt at a world record and then only if he comes near this poundage during the course of the competition. If, of course, he commences lifting at or near a world-record figure, he would be allowed more than one attempt as he is entitled to at least three attempts for his actual championship

When competing for world records on other occasions, there is actually no rule of the International Federation governing the number of permitted attempts, and generally is is left to the time available and the discretion of the organizers and officials of the particular event.

Record Claims
The Secretary-General of the International Federation keeps a register of world records, and claims signed by the presiding officials (also the President or Secretary of the national body concerned) must be sent to him within a maximum period of two months.

There are some differences in this country concerning British and lesser records as compared with world records.

First, the bodyweight classes. World records are recognized in the seven international bodyweight classes, form bantamweight through to heavyweight. These classes are, of course, also recognized in Britain, but as I said earlier, in addition we recognize records in a completely different range of bodyweight classes, even-stone from 8 stone through to 14 stone.

Many of you may wonder why this is so. Actually, the even-stone classes are traditionally the basic British Amateur Weight Lifters' Association when British Amateur Championships were the main interest of our national lifting."

Olympic Trials
In those early days, Olympic Championships were rarely held and were termed Olympic Trials, staged shortly before an Olympic Games was due. The real interest in Olympic lifting didn't come until the early 1930's, in the days of such lifters as Ron Walker and Norman Holroyd, who were considered as world prospects and fostered a greater interest in Olympic Lifting.

British Amateur Championships were decided on all-round lifting, usually four or five lifts that were changed every year, but eventually Olympic lifting became the major interest and about a decade ago the character for the Amateur Championships was changed when they, too, were decided on the Olympic lifts. This gave us two championships a year, with the Olympics held in the spring or summer and the Amateurs in the autumn or winter. Later, the Amateur Championships were abolished altogether, to be replaced by the Strength Set, a form of lifting that is still gaining in popularity.

Naturally, when championships were being held in the even-stone classes, records were also recognized. Remember, too, that we recognize all our thirty-one lifts in even-stone classed, with only the international lifts in international bodyweight classes as well. In this way, a record on an Olympic lift often is twofold, as for example, when a middleweight record is made, it is often also a 12-stone record.

Record Differences
A difference in British record breaking concerns the poundage multiples.

I have explained that the International Federation practice for world records is to register them in multiples of half a kilo (1.1 English pounds) and with a minimum increase of the same multiple before a new record can be set up. But in Britain we register poundages fn multiplies of a quarter-pound and stipulate that for a British record only on the Olympic lifts the minimum increase on an old record must be one pound.

However, for lesser records on the Olympic lifts, such as divisional and county (and for all records on the remaining lifts) a quarter-pound is the minimum margin.

British and lesser records may be attempted at anytime -- in clubs, at championships, league and friendly contests, etc. -- the only stipulation being that the lifter is a registered member of the governing body, the scales using are in good working order and have been certified as such during the current year, and that qualified officials adjudicate on the record attempts.

For British record, three officials are required, with the referee of national grade. The judges used need not be national, divisional standard being considered sufficient.

For divisional and other records one referee is sufficient, either national or divisional grade.

Similar to the procedure for world record breaking a majority verdict is sufficient for recognition of a new record. The barbell and the lifter must be weighed immediately after the creation of any new record.

Three Attempts in Public
Any number of attempts may be made on a record poundage, except when lifting in a public display, when the number of attempts is limited to three. This rule, obviously, is to prevent the possibility of countless abortive attempts being made before the public.

In addition to individual lifts, records are also recognized on Olympic totals in both international and even-stone classes, and similarity may be made of at anytime. Only the usual three attempts on each lift, with the proper increases observed, may be made.

Kilo Conversion
If a world record is made in this country, using our traditional pound scales, the weight must be converted into kilos, to the nearest half-kilo downwards, so that a proper submission may be made to the International Federation. Thus, as an example, a barbell which weigh 288 Lb. is actually 130.63 kilos when converted, but must be recorded, as 130 1/2 kilos. In such a case the lifter actually loses credit for .12 of a kilo, but must necessarily do so in order to comply with international regulations. The British record will naturally be recorded to the full 288 lb.

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