Bodybuilding Training Article from

Weight Lifting and Weight Training - Chapter 13

Home Gym Equipment

Individual Stations

Folding Bench Press

Adjustable Combo Bench

Flat Bench

Heavy Flat Bench

Adjustable Spotter Bench

Bench Press Spotter

Basic Bench Press

Self Spotter Rack

Power Cage

Hip Sled

Dumbbell Bench

Smith Machine Bench

Jones Machine

Back & Arm Machine

Cable Crossover Machine

Squat Rack

Preacher Curl Bench

Roman Chair

Hyperextension Bench

Seated Calf Machine

Vertical Knee Raise

Hack Squat Machine

Power Rack

Power Rack Bench Combo

Power Rack Lat Attachment

Leg Extension Curl

Ab Crunch Board

Dumbbell Rack

Flat Incline Decline Bench

Utility Bench

Smith Machine

Smith Lat Attachment

Plate Loaded Gym

150 lb. Weight Stack

Selectorized Home Gym

Preacher Curl Attachment

Bench Squat Combo

Lat Machines

Phys-X Free-Standing Lat Tower

Olympic Weight Tree

Standard Weight Tree

Ab Crunch Machine


Home Gyms

Home Gyms

Performance Trainer

Biangular Gym

Two Stack Gym

4-in-1 Free Weight Gym

All-in-1 Free Weight Gym

Smith Gym


Cardio Equipment

8k Treadmill

10k Treadmill

Elliptical Trainer


Miscellaneous Items

Body Solid Miscellaneous

Bodybuilding Accessories

Gravity Inversion Boots

Ab Blaster Slings

Olympic Adapter Sleeves

Rubber Floor Protector

Olympic Shrug Bar

Push-Up Bars


Chapter Thirteen

International rules of competition

Every weightlifter should have a through knowledge of the rules of competitions. This may sound elementary, as ignorance of the various methods of procedure, rules appertaining to the lifts, etc., can easily lead to a situation in which one's chances of winning a title or contest are jeopardized. Yet I have known some active weight lifters who haven't taken the trouble to study fully the essential points governing performance.

Bodyweight Classes
In modern competitions there are seven bodyweight classes, providing opportunities for men of all weights.

This gives the small men a chance of championship hours and recognition -- as in sports like wrestling and boxing -- where as in some major sports like athletics for example, the small man has to compete against his larger brothers, without any allowance for size or bodyweight, and is thus at a distinct disadvantage.

Here are details of the international classes:

  • Bantamweight - Up to a limit of 56 kilos (123 1/4 lb.)
  • Featherweight - From 56 kilos to 60 (132 1/4 lb.)
  • Lightweight - From 60 kilos to 67 1/2 kilos (148 3/4 lb.)
  • Middleweight - From 67 to 75 kilos (165 1/4 lb.)
  • Light-heavyweight - From 75 kilos to 82 1/2 (181 3/4 lb.)
  • Mid-heavyweight - From 82 1/2 kilos to 90 kilos (198 1/4 lb.)
  • Heavyweight - All over 90 kilos

Competitors must weigh (completely stripped) within the class limit in which they wish to compete, and are not allowed to take part in any class other than that of their ascertained bodyweight.

The weight-in must take place within one hour of the scheduled time of the start of the completion, and must be supervised by the referee in charge of that particular class.

In the U.S. there are opportunities of competition in other bodyweight classes, too, and even competition between men of widely-differing weights.

Competition between lifters of varying bodyweights are also staged (mainly in league lifting and friendly contests (on a bodyweight formula, or handicap system, but in world and Olympic championships and all types of international lifting only the seven recognized Olympic bodyweight classes are used.

The other methods I have discussed apply normally to domestic lifting in this and other countries, and give a wider range of opportunity to the competitive weight lifter.

The Barbell
With weightlifting practiced in so many countries, obviously it is necessary to use standardized equipment so that lifts performed in any part of the world have the same relative value.

Not only the barbell, of course, but other conditions of competition must be on the same level to the best of human endeavor.

International rules demand that a barbell with disc widths is the only authorized apparatus.

The modern appliance is normally a precision job, with the bar itself.made of top-quality steel and the discs machined to accurate weight.

Standard dimensions are set as follows:

Length of bar, 210 centimeters (82.67 in.); distance between inside collars, 120 centimeters (47.24 in. ); minimum diameter where knurled grips are placed, 2.8 centimeters (1.1 in.).

Maximum-sized discs (usually 20 kilos, or 45 or 50 lb.) measure 45 centimeters (17.72 in.).

This Olympic appliance made to the same standard the world over, is invariably used in all major events. But in many minor championships (divisional, state, local, etc.) a more modest barbell set is used, mainly because of the comparatively high cost of the best appliance.

Many clubs and organizations use an ordinary 1-in diameter bar with a revolving bar with a revolving sleeve, and discs to correspond. this is permissible, providing that the standard measurements are met.

International rules demand that all lifts should be performed on a solid wooden platform measuring 4 by 4 meters (13.12 ft.) and that a lift will be valid only if performed within these limits.

Thus, if a lifter steps off the platform (even with only one foot) during the performance of a lift, he will be disqualified.

International and national events -- that is the actual lifting part -- are invariably controlled the lifting.

In world and Olympic championships, there is also a Jury of Appeal, which to some degree has control of the competitions, having the power to reverse a decision (but not a unanimous one) on protest form the lifter concerned (via his manager or coach).

The referee is the chief official, and gives all necessary signals to the lifter for the commencement and conclusion of the lift. When the competitor has completed his lift and replaced the barbell on the platform, the referee and judges give their decisions by means of the lighting system provided.

This system consists of three white lights and three red lights, with each of the three officials having his own switches. If the official considers the lift to be good he will signal a white light. If considered not good he will signal a red light. For a lift to be good it must receive two or three white lights. Otherwise, the lift will be declared 'not good'. In other words, the majority decision will be the deciding factor.

If, as at some minor meeting, no lights are available, the method used is for the referee first to receive the verdicts of each judge and then give his own decision if necessary. Thus, if both judges agree on the validity or otherwise of a lift, then the referee announces their decision (which is already a majority, no matter what the referee's opinion is). If the judges disagree, then the referee's decision becomes the casting vote.

This system is by no means ideal and not to be compared with the lighting system, but has to suffice all the times lighting system is not available at all meetings.

There are occasions when the adjudicating is done solely by a referee -- meetings such as divisional and county championships, etc. when it is often difficult to obtain three officials.

This is permissible under some rules, and while opinion may be divided on the desirability of allowing one official to decide if a lift is good or not good it is mostly a matter of expediency, and does at least allow meetings to be held; whereas if three officials were insisted on it might not be possible to stage some meetings. And, after all, some other sports are controlled by one official.

In Britain, referees are appointed by examination, a method that is not universally adopted by any means, many countries appointing referees only by virtue of their known experience.

Personally, as a former chairman of the British Referees' Examining Board, I consider our system of referee appointments to be about the best in the world, and while merely to pass an examination is no guarantee of producing a good official, at least it ensures that a mn has some technical knowledge of the sport and is of reasonable intelligence.

On appointment, a British referee graded as a divisional referee for a period of at least two years before being eligible for promotions to a national referee. Later, he can be appointed an international referee, with power to function at international meetings.

More chapters from this book below...
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